Artur Kaul, Uwe Schönmann, and Stefan Pöhlmann. Primate Biol., 6, 1–6, 2019.
Macaques serve as important animal models for biomedical research. Viral infection of macaques can compromise animal health as well as the results of biomedical research, and infected animals constitute an occupational health risk. Therefore, monitoring macaque colonies for viral infection is an important task. We used a commercial chip-based assay to analyze sera of 231 macaques for the presence of antibody responses against nine animal and human viruses. We report high seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), lymphocryptovirus (LCV), rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) and simian foamy virus (SFV) antibodies in all age groups. In contrast, antibodies against simian retrovirus type D (SRV/D) and simian T cell leukemia virus (STLV) were detected only in
5 % and 10 % of animals, respectively, and were only found in adult or aged animals. Moreover, none of the animals had antibodies against herpes B virus (BV), in keeping with the results of in-house tests previously used for screening. Finally, an increased seroprevalence of measles virus antibodies in animals with extensive exposure to multiple humans for extended periods of time was observed. However, most of these animals were obtained from external sources, and a lack of information on the measles antibody status of the animals at the time of arrival precluded drawing reliable conclusions from the data. In sum, we show, that in the colony studied, CMV, LCV, RRV and SFV infection was ubiquitous and likely acquired early in life while SRV/D and STLV infection
was rare and likely acquired during adulthood.
Jay A, Marko S, Luke K, Ramos‐Rivera E, Culbreth M, Moreau A,Lugo‐Roman L, Bentzel D. In: Association Of Primate Veterinarians 46th Annual Workshop, 2018.
While mandatory screening by administration of intradermal tuberculin skin test (TST) in captive nonhuman primate colonies has resulted in significant reduction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) incidence, animals imported from countries with high rates of human infection still present a significant risk to research institutes and open colonies utilizing them. At a research institute in Maryland, U.S., cynomolgus macaques were identified with M. tb. Upon discovery of the first macaque with M. tb, room and building level quarantines, changes in personal protective equipment, consideration and employment of various diagnostic screening methods, retrospective postmortem lesion analysis, and enhanced employee tuberculosis (TB) screening were conducted. A test-and-cull strategy was established for cynomolgus macaques housed in the facility utilizing standard TSTs paired with serology conducted with a commercially available simian TB test. Antemortem serology yielded 6/120 animals positive for M. tb complex (M. tb, M. bovis, M. kansasii). All macaques that were euthanized had full necropsies, histopathological evaluation, PCR testing of tissue. Of the 6 that tested positive, 1 had significant gross lesions that were positive on histopathological evaluation, PCR and culture positive M. tb. Post-mortem serology using stored samples revealed an additional 1/10 animals positive with M. tb complex. A retrospective survey of histopathological evaluations of animals necropsied within the last 2 y revealed an additional 6 animals with granulomatous lesions and when tested for M. tb with immunofluorescent staining were positive. TS failed to identify any positive animals in the colony at any time. Improved Tb surveillance, beyond TST monitoring, should be considered for high risk groups of nonhuman primates. Incorporating serology as a component of a TB screening program for cynomolgus macaques may prevent the loss of animals, disruption of research, occupational health risk to personnel, and overall economic burden related to outbreak and disease control.